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# Chapter 2

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Demography | The study of general population trends. |

Population Density | The measure of total population relative to land area. Assumes an even distribution of people over area. |

Arithmetic population density | The number of people per unit area of land. Divide population by area of land. |

Population distribution | The description of the pattern and spatial arrangement of people, including where large numbers of people live closely together (clustering) and where few people live (dispersed). |

Dot Maps | Geographers use these to represent population distribution on thematic maps. Each dot represents a certain number of people. |

Megalopolis | A huge, urban agglomeration that stretches from Washington, DC in the south to Boston, Massachusetts in the north. |

Natural Increase Rate | The crude birth rate and crude death rate of a population are two statistics used to calculate natural increase rate. |

Crude birth rate (CBR) | The number of live births per year per thousand people. |

Crude death rate (CDR) | The number of deaths per year per thousand people. |

Contraceptive prevalence rate | The percentage of women ages 15-49 who are currently using or whose partner is currently using at least one contraceptive method. |

Doubling time | Time required for a population to double in size. |

Total fertility rate (TFR) | The average number of children born to women of childbearing age(between 15-49). |

Old-age dependency ratio | The relationship between the number of people over the age of 65 and the working-age population between 15-64. |

Child dependency ratio | Number of people between ages of 0 and 14 for every 100 people between the ages of 15-64 (working age population). |

Population composition | The structure of a population in terms of age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education. |

Population pyramids | Graphic representations of the age and sex composition of a population. |

Demographic transition | A model suggesting that a country’s birth rate and death rate change in predictable ways over stages of economic development. |

Zero population growth | A state in which a population is maintained at a constant level because the number of deaths is exactly offset by the number of births. |

Infant mortality rate (IMR) | The probability that a child will die before reaching the age of 1 year. |

Life expectancy | The average number of years a person is expected to live;. |

Epidemiological transition | Holds that as a country moves from high population growth rates to stable population growth rates, the causes of death and the age at which people are afflicted by disease change. |

Infectious diseases | Diseases that are spread by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Infectious diseases infuse directly or indirectly from human to human. |

Degenerative diseases | Generally long lasting afflictions, now more common because of longer life expectancies. |

Genetic or inherited diseases | Diseases caused by variation or mutation of a gene or group of genes in humans. |

Malaria | Vectored disease spread by a certain type of mosquitoes. |

Expansive population policies | Encourage large families and raise the rate of natural increase. |

Eugenic population policies | Designed to favor one racial or cultural group by discouraging ostracized groups from having children. |

Restrictive population policies | Designed to reduce a population’s natural increase rate. |