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Yep. Bessimer process. 

Iron ore, coal, limestone + air gets you iron. 

Then you can do it again (Basic Oxygen Furnace) to refine the iron to steel, using coke instead of coal to further reduce and refine. 

With iron you can also use an electric arc furnace but there I think you can have issues with carbon burning off and you need to re-add it as the mixture requires. 

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10 minutes ago, sunday said:

Looks like the Bessemer process stopped being relevant around 1980: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steelmaking#Modern_processes

Umm Nope. They still need coal. What they've done is removed the need for the coal converted to coke first.  But they still need the coal as a way of fueling and removing the oxygen from the ore to make the pig iron. Remember, iron ore is iron oxide. You need to drive the oxygen out and that's done with combining it with the carbon from the coal in the combustion and mixing process. 


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Edited by rmgill
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Converters, be they Bessemer, be they BOF, need pig iron from a blast furnace, and a blast furnace needs metallurgical coal. That was my original point, sorry.

Some new processes, like FINEX, or HIsarna could use other coal grades.

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And I guess I'm lumping Bessimer with other more advanced processes. I think it really comes down to the way they introduce the coal and the fine part of how it's all cooked, slowly or quickly. Maybe a way of thinking is it baked or broiled?

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21 hours ago, Adam Peter said:

...an M44 diesel (I don't think really special, my first H0 locomotive)...

Green one with black/white chevrons on front? I had that one, as well as red M61. :)

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Hm, could be that it was a local livery version, but I don't remember if it had local markings. Painted exactly like this one:

J%C5%BD_641_series_locomotive_(01).jpg

Edited by bojan
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