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History of Soviet tanks – T-72 difference from T-64/ T-80

 

 

Maybe this will explain that T-72 was not the only and not the best Soviet tank....

 

 

Contrary to the basic believe of the western and even Russian public T-72 is not a development of T-64A (the Soviet Main Battle Tank). T-72 vas development of Ural design bureau experimental tank that lost the competition to T-64 predecessor o. 430. That is why T-72 use the 22 rounds autoloader previously planned for modernized T-62. A completely different drivetrain and different turret.

The T-72 series itself was a “mobilization” tank of the soviet army. It was designed for mass production in war time in huge numbers.

 

 

 

T-72 predecessor o. 140 and 167

 

 

The most important threads of Soviet tank development before 1966

 

Basically the first automatic fire control and gun-lunched missile appeared on T-64B in 1976. Then it was installed on T-80. The automatic fire control was never installed on T-72 or it’s versions.

The same story with armor – while the T-64-s and T-80 was equipment with high cost composite armor the T-72 had the simplest possible sand rods and then reflecting plates which were much less valuable than advanced compositions of T-80U …

So the key idea is that T-72 was not the primary Soviet tank, it was exported worldwide to any nation possible. While no T-64 or T-80 was ever exported (After Soviet Union T-80U was exported to ROK, Cyprus and T-80UD to Pakistan)…

 

 

The most important threads of Soviet tank development after 1966

 

FIRE CONTROL

 

1-st T-72 and T-80/64 were equipped with different guns.

T-80/64 received newest guns much before T-72-variants.

 

T-64 fire control consists of (basic information)

 

Targeting complex 1A34

-laser sight 1G42 with block of shot permission 1G43 and tank ballistic computer 1V517.

The AUTOMATIC sensors of entering information are

Heel sensor 1B14

Wind sensor 1B11

relative bearing sensor

tank speed sensor

 

The following information is entered before combat manually is temperature of the air, type of ammunition batch, atmosphere pressure, charge temperature, air temperature, barrel wear.

 

In the automatic fire control the correction factor for target range, tank speed, target speed, wind are entered automatically. The gunner just puts the mark on the target and the gun is adjusted automatically to required position, the mark does not change it’s position.

 

 

What is T-72B fire control –

 

The automatic fire control was not installed on T-72.

Instead of ballistic computer the tank is equipped with ballistic corrector.

The correction factor for target range tank speed, target speed, wind are not entered automatically. The wind correction factor is measured “by eye” (until the last serial versions and T-72C).

The gunner puts the mark on the target measures the range with LRF, the mark moves lover depending on range … It requires more time then with automatic FCS.

Another diference of T-72B from T-64/80B is that T-72 can not fire guided missiles while moving…

 

 

placements of fire control elements inside the T-72B combat compartament

 

1 – executive cylinder of vertical drive VN

2 – Block for entering corrections

3 – guidance block for 9K120

4 – control block

5 – converter for 9K120

6 – electric module of 1A40-1

7 – round

8 – guided missile

9 – block for entering range

10 – horizontal drive GN

12 – electric machine booster

13 – 1K13 sight

14 - 1A40-1 targeting complex

Edited by Harkonnen
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That certainly helps to colour some of the grey areas.

 

You imply T-64/80B can fire the guided missile while moving. Is this at full speed, half or very slow?

 

Thanks

 

Rob

267855[/snapback]

 

30 km/h but it may depend on terrain

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Harkonnen; great topic...good work. I have a few questions:

 

1. Wasn't the T-64A known as the Object 434 (not Ob. 439)?

 

2. While some T-64As were upgraded with more advanced fire control systems including LRFs eventually, the first T-64s to have the LRF were the T-64B right?

 

3. While you've already mentioned that the T-90A is the welded-turret version of the T-90S/T-90M used by the Russian Army, did you leave the T-90S off your chart since it is intended for export?

 

4. What is the Object 178?

 

5. IIRC, the Object 447 is the Ukrainian Molot...correct? What can you tell us about this tank...do you have news about its status?

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Wasn't the T-64A known as the Object 434 (not Ob. 439)?
No, 439 is V-type diesel version of T-64 made by Kharkiv design bureau for production in Niznii Taagil.

But they did not want to produce it and developed the tank from they “line” of development.

Only 3 o. 439 were produced. They were called o. 173 according to Tagil’s index.

 

While some T-64As were upgraded with more advanced fire control systems including LRFs eventually, the first T-64s to have the LRF were the T-64B right?

 

Yes. The T-64A featured TPD-2-1, TPD-2-49 and then TPD-K1

 

did you leave the T-90S off your chart since it is intended for export?
No export version showed though the Russian line for mass production of welded turrets appeared mainly due to full scale Indian contract.

 

What is the Object 178?

 

It is full scale T-72 series development which first featured welded turret (but not the same as T-90C/A) and a completely new hull and a new gun with new types of ammunition. The protection of the sides were greatly increased, the tank featured various experimental diesels also as gas turbine.

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Good posting, very informative.

 

I am very interested in the development of the one labled 640 and what appears to be the predecessor. I believe these are refered to as the "Black Eagle". It is my understanding that they are not in production and not scheduled to be fielded due to funding issues. Rumors have it the Russians are trying to export it in order to raise the funding for their own production. How accurate is that? I am also greatly curous about the fire control system and the loader mechanics.

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So Stephan, did you ever range using the TPD-2-49?  How long did it take, how accurate, etc.  By the way, your T-64 site is really good.  thanks.

    Rick

267955[/snapback]

 

Measuring takes only some seconds. The middle error was with 3%. The quality of the gunner and the current view conditions are crucial.

I was not trained no more at the TPD-2-49. The east german army NVA had only T-72 with the TPD-K1 (LRF). Before it a test series with TPD-2-49 was bought.

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Good posting, very informative.

 

I am very interested in the development of the one labled 640 and what appears to be the predecessor.

 

There are 2 types of future tank basicly known as Back Eagle - 1-st is Unified Turret ussed for upgrade existing tanks like T-80 with anti tandem Kaktus ERA

 

2-nd is a cjompletely new tank o 640 with the similar looking but completely different turret. The drawing can explain the difference.

 

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No, 439 is V-type diesel version of T-64 made by Kharkiv design bureau for production in Niznii Taagil. But they did not want to produce it and developed the tank from they “line” of development.

 

So, the production T-64A with the flat (opposed-piston) Kharkov engine was the Object 434...right?

 

It is full scale T-72 series development which first featured welded turret (but not the same as T-90C/A) and a completely new hull and a new gun with new types of ammunition. The protection of the sides  were greatly increased, the tank featured various experimental diesels also as gas turbine.

 

I remember reading about a welded-turret variant of the T-72 years ago...are any photos available? Are you saying that it was put into production or was it a prototype only?

 

Any info on the Molot? What info is available regarding the relationship between the Molot and the T-95?

267999[/snapback]

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So, the production T-64A with the flat (opposed-piston) Kharkov engine was the Object 434...right?
432 - T-64

434 - Т-64A

 

432 (T-64) with V-diesel - 436

434 (T-64A) with V-diesel (V-45) - 438 (later renamed 439)

 

It is full scale T-72 series development which first featured welded turret (but not the same as T-90C/A) and a completely new hull and a new gun with new types of ammunition. The protection of the sides  were greatly increased, the tank featured various experimental diesels also as gas turbine.

 

 

I remember reading about a welded-turret variant of the T-72 years ago...are any photos available? Are you saying that it was put into production or was it a prototype only?
No it is not T-72 with welded-turret, it is a tank based on T-72 with new HULL and new turret, not mentioning the new gun and autoloader...

Photos are not awailible for reliese. You may look at the drawing.

 

 

Any info on the Molot? What info is available regarding the relationship between the Molot and the T-95?

 

The tank prototypes ware ready in 87, then it gous several modification and final SSSR broke up. The technolagy was exchanged with Russia. The trials continued up to 2000 ... later information is not known.

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Guest Charles

No it is not T-72 with welded-turret, it is a tank based on T-72 with new HULL and new turret, not mentioning the new gun and autoloader...

Photos are not awailible for reliese. You may look at the drawing.

 

Harkonnen,

Thank you for the brilliant diagrammes. Very interesting thread.

Would the drawing of the Tank based on the T-72 be the T-72 with the 120mm smoothbore?. It look's similar to the photo someone posted a few weeks back.

 

Thank you

 

Charles

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I have a question on the T-80 and its derivatives. How comes in 1987 there were only a few hundreds (per Lenskii) deployed in Germany? what was the rate of production like?. thanks.

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I have a question on the T-80 and its derivatives. How comes in 1987 there were only a few hundreds (per Lenskii) deployed in Germany? what was the rate of production like?. thanks.

268156[/snapback]

 

What is it per Lenskii ?

 

There were 2256 T-80 in GSVG. Not including a training and special units (maybe up to 400).

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No it is not T-72 with welded-turret, it is a tank based on T-72 with new HULL and new turret, not mentioning the new gun and autoloader...

Photos are not awailible for reliese. You may look at the drawing.

 

 

Did this tank ever go into production (beyond testing) and service? Did the main gun actually have the muzzle-brake as shown in the drawing?

 

268079[/snapback]

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This mystery could solve so far nobody. Unfortunately I did not have a cm-tape thereby. 115 or 125 mm, i think 125 mm. It is a T-64 and its gun has also a muzzle brake.

 

It's not a fake !

 

Edited by Stefan Kotsch
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This mystery could solve so far nobody. Unfortunately I did not have a cm-tape  thereby. 115 or 125 mm, i think 125 mm. It is a T-64 and its gun has also a muzzle brake.

268202[/snapback]

 

I've seen photos somewhere of tanks "demilitarized" with holes in the barrell. Just a way of making sure the gun barrell could not be used.

Could be the case?

 

Edit: is i remember right, it was to comply with a legal limitation so the the tank could be handed to civilians, or something like that...

Edited by gnocci
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