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Pavel Novak

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  1. So it seems that Czech - Russian diplomatic relations are on the crossroad. New Czech foreign minister has given ultimatum to Russia to withdraw Russian decision to reduce Czech personnel in Czech embassy in Moscow to tomorrow 12:00 or Russian embassy in Prague will be reduced to same level as Czech embassy in Moscow. Note that Russian embassy in Prague is more than two times bigger than Czech one in Moscow before reduction of the Czech one (after reduction about four times bigger). The question is if we have balls to really do that...
  2. Thanks. At least Fagot variants and warheads are clear. I lack clear evidence only for basic 9M111 produced before 1975. Plus not counting elusive Fagot with tandem warhead from 1990s - there is zero evidence for it. But with Konkurs I still have issue. I was unable to find any clear 9M113 with basic 9N131 warhead and at the same time I can confirm 9M113 with 9N131M warhead in production only from 1985. It seems to me that early Konkurs was exported before 1985 with BMP-2 and 9P148 but apparently in much smaller numbers than 9M111-2 and thus is hard to find. Significant export was only in late 1980s when also licenced models from other countries (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia) became available and that with improved 9N131M warhead.
  3. Do you know what type of warheads were on Yugoslavian 9M113?
  4. I was looking for variants and its warheads with Fagot (AT-4 Spigot), Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel) and Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn) and I have these results to share and ask for correction and additions. Fagot (AT-4 Spigot) 9M111 – should use 9N122 warhead, range 2000m. Production probably ended in 1974/75 and was probably not exported. I was unable to find any clear picture of it. 9M111-2 (first subvariant) – with 9N122 warhead, range still 2000m. It is only small upgrade against basic 9M111 without change in tactical characteristic. Demonstrably produced at least in years 1975 to 1979. Widely exported (Czechoslovak army got them). 9M111-2 (second subvariant) – with improved 9N122M warhead, range still 2000m. Demonstrably produced in year 1980. Probably not exported. 9M111M – with 9N122M warhead, improved range 2500m. Demonstrably produced in 1981 to 1990. Exported during 1980s at least to some Warsaw Pact states (Czechoslovak army got them). 9M111MV – mentioned as Bulgarian production for Georgia before 2008 war. No info about warhead or other characteristic. In Cyrillic its name is 9M111MВ. I was unable to find any clear picture of it. 9M111MV-1 – apparently Bulgarian with 9N135V warhead. Demonstrably produced in 2014/15. No info about its characteristic. In Cyrillic its name is 9M111MВ-1. Found in Syria. 9M111MFV-1 – apparently Bulgarian with 9N135V warhead. Demonstrably produced in 2015. No info about its characteristic. In Cyrillic its name is 9M111MFВ-1. Found in Syria. 9N122 warhead has certified penetration 400mm (see Bojan posts, Czech sources agree) and average 460-500mm (see Bojan posts). 9N122M warhead has certified penetration 460mm (see Bojan posts, Czech sources agree) and average 500-560mm (see Bojan posts). I have no information if Bulgarian 9N135V warhead is any different from original Soviet 9N135 or why this warhead was used for Bulgarian Fagot missiles. Konkurs (AT-5 Spandrel) 9M113 (first subvariant) – first production subvariant should use 9N131 warhead. Range 4000m (stays same for all later variants). I was unable to find any clear picture of it and I don’t know if this subvariant was exported or not. 9M113 (second subvariant) – with improved 9N131M warhead. Demonstrably produced in 1985 to 1992. Exported (Czechoslovak army got them). 9M113M (first subvariant) – should use tandem 9N131M1 warhead. Offered for export but I was unable to find any photo of production model. 9M113M (second subvariant) – with 9N131M2-1 warhead. Demonstrably produced in 2006. Found in Syria. 9N131 warhead according to Tankograd page ( https://thesovietarmourblog.blogspot.com/2017/12/t-72-part-2.html ) has penetration 550mm. I don’t know if Bojan’s info (560mm certified, 600-650 average) responds to this warhead variant. 9N131M warhead according to Tankograd page has penetration 630mm. Russian export brochure gives 670mm. Slovak export brochure gives 800mm (this not later tandem one). I am not sure here but I think that it is possible that: - 9N131 has 560mm certified, 600-650mm average - 9N131M has 630mm certified, 670+mm average and max advertised 800mm 9N131M1 have tandem warhead and sources are consistent with Bojan’s info of 750mm behind ERA certified and 800-900mm behind ERA average 9N131M2-1 no idea Metis (AT-7 Saxhorn) 9M115 with 9N135 warhead, range 1000m. Demonstrably produced in 1981 to 1987 (probably started earlier and ended later but I have clear evidence only for these years). Exported and also produced in Bulgaria. 9M115M offered for export with probably same basic characteristic as original 9M115. No idea about improvements or if it was produced. 9N135 warhead should have same penetration as 9N122M warhead. My conclusion is that with new generation of tanks entering service at the end of 1970s/early 1980s in NATO Soviets modified their missiles to improve penetrations for Fagot and Konkurs while Metis which entered service as last from these got better warhead from the start so no improvement here in 1980s. Next round of warheads improvement was just about to start in early 1990s for Konkurs and Metis (new missile) but I have found no information if there was any such upgrade development for Fagot. Though tandem warhead for Fagot was mentioned I was unable to find any actual evidence.
  5. I agree with this. But problem is that Polish army uses "T-72A" designation for its late T-72M. Also when Czechoslovakia and Poland negotiated for licence production in second half of 1970s the name often mentioned was T-72A and that already in 1977 before tanks with such designation were in service in Soviet army (at least I think). The issue with designations is probably further complicated by using different designations by factory production and army's designation. That could explain the factory codes vs army documents. Nice example of this from Czechoslovakia is so confusing "OT 64A2" vs "OT-64A" which are same thing but the first come from factory designation and the second is military designation. Unfortunately I don't have anything on factory numbers for T-72 to compare with your information. But to me it seems problematic designation TM - MTU-72 as "MTU" is for bridge lying tank and that was not produced in Czechoslovakia (it was in development but cancelled with one or two prototypes built).
  6. Unfortunately nothing new from what was already posted i.e. numbers in Polish army (below) but I have never seen any data on Polish export (apart of that East German info). 20 basic T-72 218 T-72M (early) - in one polish official document designated just as T-72 but more often in Poland designated as T-72M 183 T-72M (late) - in that same document designated as T-72A 352 T-72M1 including command T-72M1D
  7. It is bad translation: "1989 – 549 (davon: T 72 aus SU 64 Stück, CSSR 134. Polen 85; T 72M SU 69. CSSR 30, Polen 31; T72M1 CSSR 96. Polen 40)." CSSR is Czechoslovakia - alias Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
  8. Definitely the CS and Soviet numbers switched. I have these data for East Germany from Yahoo discussions back in 2006: T72 - 64 (USSR), 134 (Czechoslovakia), 85 (Poland) T72M - 69 (USSR), 30 (Czechoslovakia), 31 (Poland) T72M1 - 96 (Czechoslovakia), 40 (Poland) and delivery: 1978: 35 T-72 1981: 31 T-72 1982: 5 T-72 1983: 69 T-72M and 35 T-72 1984: 79 T-72 1985: 9 T-72M and 100 T-72 1986: 53 T-72M 1987: 63 T-72M1 1988: 43 T-72M1 1989: 30 T-72M1 It doesn't distinguish basic T-72 from T-72M (early) and command versions but it matches Czech sources. Sum of year's delivery is 552 against 549 from first table. But from another source the East German army discarded 2 T-72 (dunno basic or early M) in 1982 and 1 T-72M (late) in 1987 (I don't know why). But that means there is still missing info on origin of 3 imported tanks.
  9. T-72 in Czechoslovakia: 30 basic T-72 and 1 command T-72K received from the USSR in 1978 1981-85 - production of T-72M (early) designated by CS army just as T-72 - 2 tanks of this version imported from the USSR as models for domestic production - the first production run was just assembly of imported parts (but I don't know exactly how much) - total number produced in Czechoslovakia was 556 - CS army got 305 T-72M (early) - 303 from domestic production and 2 imported models - Export was to Bulgaria (76 in 82-85), Hungary (43 in 84-85) and East Germany (134 in 82-85) 1985-86 - production of T-72M (late) and command T-72MK - total number produced in Czechoslovakia was 251 T-72M (late) and 26 T-72MK - CS army got 176 T-72M (late) and 18 T-72MK - Export was to Hungary (3 T-72MK), East Germany (25 T-72M (late) and 5 T-72MK) and Syria (50 T-72M (late) in 1985) 1986-91 - production of T-72M1, production of command T-72M1K started in 1987 - total number produced in Czechoslovakia was 912 T-72M1 and 37 T-72M1K - CS army got 276 T-72M1 and 13 T-72M1K with last delivered in 1989, the 1990 order for 78 tanks was released for export - Export was to Bulgaria (16 T-72M1 in 87-88), Hungary (3 T-72M1 in 87 and 2 T-72M1K), East Germany (91 T-72M1 and 5 T-72M1K), Algeria (106 T-72M1 in 87-88 and 8 T-72M1K), Iraq (90 T-72M1 in 86-87), Libya (119 T-72M1 in 86-88) and Syria (199 T-72M1 in 90-91 and 9 T-72M1K). The East Germany also bought another 12 T-72M1 in 1989 but these were for reexport to some third country (I don't know where they ended.) - they were not registered in East German army. The USSR was not importing Czechoslovak T-72 battle tanks but was importing VT-72B engineer tanks.
  10. Czechoslovakia evaluated T-62 but it was rejected and was not produced here. Dunno where this myth started but you know the West thought that Soviets had T-72 in their units in eastern Germany. Also time to time you can find another myths about czechoslovak production of MiG-17 and Il-28 which are also incorrect.
  11. Czechoslovak T-72 export to these countries: Bulgaria 76 T-72M (early) in 1982-85 16 T-72M1 in 1986-87 Hungary 43 T-72M (early) in 1984-85 3 T-72M1 in 1987 3 command T-72MK 2 command T-72M1K Syria 50 T-72M (late) in 1985 199 T-72M1 in 1990-91 (including 78 originally ordered by Czechoslovak army but released for export) 9 command T-72M1K Libya 119 T-72M1 in 1986-88 Note: T-72M (early) - steel turret, 80+105+20 hull, laser rangefinder, 39 rounds for gun, side with gill armor, no smoke grenade - in Czechoslovak army designated just T-72 but in Polish army designated T-72M T-72M (late) - same armor as previous, 44 rounds for gun, continuous side skirts, smoke grenades on turret - in Czechoslovak army designated T-72M but in Polish army designated T-72A (I am still not 100 % sure with polish designations so corrections welcomed)
  12. There are some rumours that Armenia should cede Syunik province to Azerbaijan. Does anybody knows more?
  13. Such structure makes sense. Still one would think that some security procedures would be added just to prevent shooting down own military planes in conflict. While my military experience is limited to just training and not a real war I still had learned that proper identification always needs to precede shooting.
  14. Russian bots in CZ are coming with many sorts of blame shifting and crazy theories including turned off transponder. The issue with this one is that flightradar records doesn't agree. Another already proposed variant is that it was staged because how the camera man could know to make the video ... It is interesting that czech webs very pretty normal regarding discussions and once time has come at the same time massive influx of these apologist theories are now polluting space here. On a technical note adding SA-4, SA-6 and SA-8 into peacetime SAM umbrella with life missiles was standard thing during Cold war. That the system belonged to the ground forces doesn't mean that it cannot operate in state air defence. Iranians really has to screw badly that a single SAM unit deployed in state air defence operates autonomously outside of IADS.
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