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Ken Estes

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  1. French Normandy prospered from the various military mechanicals left in place when the armies moved on, raising it from truly primitive oxen powered agriculture to fully mechanized farming within the decade. Today it still ranks in the forefront. This included using jeep engines and chassis to run the pumps taking water out of the canals and rivers, etc and irrigating their fields. Trucks and tracked vehicles were pressed into all kinds of uses, and a very strong scrap iron business emerged from the battlefield and base leftovers.
  2. The new science of Operations Analysis vastly improved the WWII USN performance, especially when ahead thrown ASW weapons enabled the ASW ships to fire while maintaining sonar contact. Improved tactics followed. Then there was airborne radar, long range and high linger aircraft, aerial ASW weapons, escort carriers and of course mass production of convoy escorts of all shapes and sizes. By 1943, the hunter-killer mission had been exchanged, the Axis submarine was fodder.
  3. That's nice work on these doomed ships, Andreas. At some point, it would be worth mentioning the almost total ignorance of the Italian Navy regarding radar, even in the primitive research stages. Sadkovich I think brought this to life in his book, pointing out that the German Navy withheld even basic technical knowledge from the Italians until c.1942 if I remember right [I'm away from my sources right now]. It reinforces the apparent rule that it never paid off to be an ally of the III Reich! Knowledge of the RN's radr and superiority in night engagements might have made the Italians more cautious about night fighting, maybe even saving a couple of Zara class CAs from Cunningham's battle line after Cape Matapan.
  4. Rule Britannia II! - The two CVAs in line abreast. Cheers to our friends in Blighty, It's great to witness the recovery of the RN.
  5. "In the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Midway ... was not the time for the General Board to propose a major initiative in constructing a class of large new battleships. The CNO took the initiative later to recommend resumption of construction of Illinois and Kentucky. Kentucky had reached an assessed 33.3% completion state as of 1 July 1945, with a planned 30 March 1946 launch date; Illinois had reached 20.0% completion by this time with a planned 31 December 1946 launch date. There is no record of any further work performed on the Montana class.... [Revisions already studied for armor inter alia] would have likely pushed deliveries out to 1948, well beyond the time horizon of contemporary wartime planning." General Board letters discussed in Warship International (58/3) September 2021, 185-192.
  6. I have no idea what you are referring to.
  7. ETA: David Brown in Nelson to Vanguard noted the RN acting the same, planned keeping all four KGV active and continuing construction of Vanguard so that their postwar carrier TF would have battleship escort
  8. Nimitz replaced King as Chief of the USN on 15 December 1945
  9. Thanks, amigo. I've shifted my CP back to the disUnited States for a little while. Simply amazing times....
  10. I'd say that the answer is Adm King and his postwar plan for keeping the peace through applied global sea power:
  11. "Rule Britannia!" HMS Pr of Wales returns to Portsmouth on 26 May 2021. Photo credit Derek Fox for Warship International https://imagizer.imageshack.com/img924/9320/XWt7zZ.jpg
  12. of course, 14" - I stand corrected It helps to remember that both IJN/USN enjoyed fuel handicaps in 1942. The Japanese operations had exceeded all consumption planning and expectations, by almost 100%. Their battle line had to stay in home waters just as did the OBBs of the USN. Fast battleships were necessary for carrier escort duties in each case, and the Yamato and Iowa became expensive command posts for the respective fleet commanders. Iowa had the exceptional duty to carry the head of state to meet Churchill and Stalin at Tehran, as well as having to serve her turn as the USN fast BB on standby to reinforce the RN in case of a sortie by Tirpitz. So, I cannot recall any JA theater that had "plenty of battleships" on hand, except perhaps home waters. They were held back for multiple reasons and the Kongo class BB/BC just happened to be free from escorting IJN carriers that had been beaten up in the Solomons campaign. Yamato and Musashi, of course, each suffered serious torpedo damage from USN subs when they transited home from alternating Truk duty.
  13. Quite the masterminds those IJN officers, eh? They presumed that Henderson Field was paved, but it was not, hence penetrated by their 15 inch rounds at any angle, HMS Queen Elizabeth had spotting aircraft at her disposal for bombarding the Dardenelles forts, 1915. Spotting aircraft launched at night from shipboard would not be recoverable until daybreak, however. The only aircraft reported that night by the USMC was the JA spotter for their 150mm guns.
  14. In his Korea book, he characterized the 1st Marine Division's fighting retreat/march out of Chosin, inter alia, as having been made against 'light resistance.'
  15. That fits. In the 'successful' bombardment by two Kongos in October, there was a JA spotter plane aloft to spot for their 150mm guns, but the IJN relied on fires set by early salvos to provide aiming points. As quoted, the main airfield was back in action in a day or two and the fighter strips remained active the next morning.
  16. Spotting aircraft for shore bombardment? Who wudda thunk it.........?
  17. Surely you understand the interrelationship of doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures? But maybe you have no experience with the evolution of doctrine? OTOH, maybe you are a clueless wanderer across the pages of naval history. I doubt that you will find much material on the IJN use of BBs in shore bombardment, nor of shore bombardment in general.
  18. Sending two Kongo class BBs to bombard an island airfield hardly signifies a change on BB doctrine; more so a solution to two BBs idle in theater with no carrier task force to escort.
  19. +1 In addition to "Remember PH" , there were some 660,000 Marines who coined "Remember Wake Island." The current USMC fighter squadron VMFA-211 is still named "Wake Island Avengers." In late 1945, the Saturday Evening Post published results of a reader poll on the topic of "do you approve of the use of atomic bombs vs Japan?" The result was approx. 75% approval rate with most of the c.25% wishing more bombs had been dropped.
  20. I would invite you to explain that statement, but frankly I don't care about such nonsense.
  21. Hi Sardaukar, I'm glad to see this post of yours, as I recently decided to resume playing this suspended life experience. I see the increases in complexity of the JA side, but also I'm finding some of the US procedures somewhat new. Just to try out, I was intrigued by the possibility of saving Wake Island. So I opened the game with no JA surprise at PH, allowing most ships in port to survive. I sent both Lex and Ent CV TFs to Wake and sent one of two PH surface combat TFs [ with the two Californias] there, but the other BB/CA TF I sent against a Catalina patrol sighting of the IJN found ENE of PH, only to have it flee back to PH on contact [??]!! Nagumo managed to get to Wake just after the two CV TFs had damaged [but not destroyed!] the Surface TF from the Marshalls, leaving the JA troops ashore to expire. But then began the slaughter! There had been bad weather all across the Central Pacific and contact was fleeting, but not fore the IJN! Two dive bomber squadrons from Lex turned back in the weather and did not press home, but Nagumo's gang did. Ent is sunk, Lex is 50% along with several CAs and some DDs sunk. They may never make it back to PH, but maybe Nagumo needs to continue westward. So, it's back to reading the encyclopedic rules and preparing for a new start in a full struggle of the widespread Allied forces. Cheers!
  22. Thus, hardly a decisive effect, especially unjustified when two sister Kongo class battleships were lost in November in the same mission.
  23. Only at night and with the target being the airfield. The 8-inch cruisers were considered more destructive. In any case there exist no definitive BDA info. Their repeats of that feat cost them IJN Hiei and Kirishima shortly afterwards [1st and 2d naval Battles of Guadalcanal].
  24. I should have mentioned that the USMC M1A1 tank platoon dropped to 4 tanks, as was the case with the US Army and several foreign armies with the new generation. The West German Army tankers at the time referred to it as "Eine Zug mit eine geschossen."
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