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  1. Thre is a lot to unpack in that vid....... I am sorry... So we focus on beer, patriotism hard work... some things are factually untrue: like the piano thing ... and the "German" generals in the Roman army ? There were some (but can we project what we now think as being Gemran to that period ?), lots of them were Avars, semi-Hunnic, etc.... I wonder that the greatest achievements in science of the Germans are just not mentioned, in the late 19th early 20th century they revolutionised physics, chemistry, medicine, the study of history, produced some of the greatest writers and philospers (even before that) etc..... Many of the leading compsers of the 3rd to end of the 19th century were German....etc etc But hey, beer and patriotism.... everyone his priorities..... i find the focus on important people/generals that were "ethnically" German in some way...... disturbing.... TBH, this vid is like : too many people look at Germany trough the lens at what happened in the 30'ies and rightfully so, yet most of its narrative is focussed on the stuff that was part of the propaganda/doctrine of the 1930'ies... there are lots more important and interesting things to tell by , I wonder whether what the intentions of the maker of this vid are ?< ah..okay..took a look at his channel, no more questoins.
  2. true, they start out with a lot of different models and by sort of inbreeding all end up being M50'ies or M51's 🙂
  3. Also by the early twenties more than 1300 tractors were in use in Belgium in agriculture alone, no mean feat for such a small country that was completely broke in 1918.
  4. Well, kettenkrafts seem to be considered to be very sexy.... so...... there you have your prime mover of choice 🙂
  5. OFC it did not. I just wanted to point ou that the Suez canal geve the (eastern) med some of its importance back strategically. I didn't mention the Portuguese essentially controlling the (northern) Indian ocean but this indeed a second factor in cutting the traditional (Byzantine)Ottoman-Venetian trade routes. I guess the point is that even if the Ottomans had sustained trade routes to India, European nations (Portugal to start with) had now an alternative and would never accept a high "middleman" mark-up from a Middle eastern empire-nation in the trade routes.
  6. The 16th century was not the beginning of Ottoman "decadence" ofc, but the transformation of the empire to one focussed on consolidation. A large part of the economic reforms that completely transformed the empire was to make it more self-sustaining. OFC they were still a large power for a long time.
  7. The same happened to Venice ofc..... I think in the larger long term schem of things it was just the focus of international trade and wealth shifting from the Mediterrean to the Atlantic/North sea and Northwestern Europe in general. No fleet policy could have changed that in the long term. Long ranged ocean worthy trade ships just made the med. economically a backwater. (Until the new trade route openend by the Suez canal ofc, but that was just a trade route pasing trought the Med and did not put the med region back on the front seat economically) It hurt Venice and Genua most directly (hence eg the Venetian turn from gathering wealth by trading to starting a domestic "empire" on the terra firma and a colonial one in Dalmatia and the Aegean. The Ottomans responded by centralising their state economically and socially basicaly turning inward. Their trade shifted from being the middle man in the trade with the Orient to trade with the North-Western European states and imports from these market for domestic use became much more dominant than the previous "middelman" trade. Both the Ventian and Ottoman answers to the diminishing importance ot the med. were rahter effective in the short/mid term. Due to the small size of the Ventian "empire" this one went down first (mainly at the hands of the Ottomans none the less) The Ottomans took much longer to desintegrate due to sheer inertia (i.e. like the Roman-Byzantine empire). The Ottoman empire pre 16th century can best be compared with the Roman principate era, post 16th century with the Roman dominate era: more focussed on surviving (altough they did still trive) with large military reforms, increasing buraucracy to keep things running etc.... The geographically more exposed Genoese had to deal with these new emerging powerhouses in the north western Europe (at first Milan, then Spain and France, later Austria) And would only survive by forging/switching alliances with these in which their impact/importance in these aliances quickly diminshed to being a spectator without much say at best.
  8. Yes, The 1916 version of the Leighter Minenwerfer (LeMN n.a.) could fire horizontally with a traverse of 360°. Thus it was made into a light "universal" infantry support weapon: Indirect fire mortar or direct fire light gun. It could also be fired on its wheeled carriage in a more mobile role but then ofc only over the frontal arc. (and IIRC only in the lower register, but have to look that one up) On its wheeled carriage it could be towed by 3-4 men.
  9. IIRC after the 1990 Gulf War the first of these "jet engine on tank chassis" contraptions were built to literally blow out a burning oil well. I have no idea wether they were a success, but it was much in the news back then due to its novelty/weirdness factor.
  10. In WWI Belgium lost about 40 % (net) of its horses and the remaining ones were underfed and usually 2nd or 3rd rate and beyond breeding age..... (from a pre war stock of about 150 000 - 200 000) At Versailles Belgium was allocated 10000 horses as reparations (after much higher and more realisitc requests by Belgium had been turned down by the great powers) but only 4500 were given by 1920. The Germans sent the worst of the horses as there was no inspection for quality by a 3rd party before they were delivered to Belgium. 30000 Horses were bought from the British War office, 24000 from the Canadians. These horses ofc did sterling work in restarting the economy but they were not a long term solution and there were not enough of them. Problem was that the breeding stock of the heavy draught horses for agricultural and transportation work (The Brabanders or more generally the Belgian Horse etc...) had largely dissapeared and that could not be solved by imports of random races.
  11. Thanks, your information gives me more insight in the current status of French regulation on the sale of historically/culturally valuable items. Do you know when it was sold ?
  12. never mind, answer was outdated by the time i posted 🙂
  13. yes in Belgium we got deliveries, with much Chinese propanganda, of mouth masks (we paid for them ofc), which after testing in labo's proved to be less than useless .... so much for that So your Gov have bought some goods from China that on arrival turned out low-quality and dangerous. Was some testing done prior to the deal? Was some kind of investigation started? I do not mean to accuse your officials, but here in Russia we got plenty of cases of officials buying something from China that turned up to be of extremely low quality - and following investigation indicating them deliberately buying cheapest (and low quality) stuff and pocketing the rest of the money. Nah, it was a "gift" wich was promptly turned over to QC before anyone even considered using it. OTOH, there also have been LOTS of products bought from China, from "the usual sources" that also turned out seriously substandard now, an investigation has been started (on the Chinese), this was not cheap, low quality stuff (as in usually low quality) but the normal medical grade stuff that has always been used. The Irony of it all is that China is accusing "the west" for not "taking proper precautions" (i.e. everyone donning mouthmasks, i won't talk about tracking your citizens here) , while already in Januari there were reports of Chinese middlemen buying up all the available stuff they needed in Europe.... And now they make a profit out of selling some paper with elastics attached, accompagnied by propaganda.
  14. Yes they did. I don't know about the Dunquerques main turrets, but the secondary quads were unsuccesful (overcomplicated, ROF far below expected, fragile), which caused the switch to 152 mm triples in the Richelieus,altough because these had to be DP guns , the 130 mm calibre was intially preferred, when it became clear that the quads of the Dunquerques were not expected to be fully debugged in the forseeable future (if ever). OFC a lot of the problems with the quad 130 mm turrets could also be due to the design for a DP turret ( a first in France), which was another step up in design problems on top of the quad layout. As for the Richelieu's quad turrets: This is an interesting topic. French books remain very silent about the performance of Richelieus turrets after completetion and in any case she was really never tested, altough dispersion problems were apparently never really fixed (oficially they were more or less fixed just before she was taken out of active service.... mmmm...). As for Jean Bart: all sorts of problems with her main turrets were officially declared solved in 1956, which sounds very suspicious to me since she was in fact never a completely active and fully worked up warship. When she entered service in the fleet, only one of the main turrets could be used (and 1/3th of the secondaries and AA guns) and the other was oficlialy "mothballed" and would have needed at least 2 months of work to get into service if needed. this sounds a bit weird to me. 2 months to make a recently completed turret active ? Sounds like the turret neede a little bit more work than taking it just 'out of the mothballs". Also JB barely ever did full salvo fire with her single 15" operational quad, many single gun salvoes were fired to train the crew and work up the ship to a reasonable degree of effectiveness as a shore bombardment ship, in which role she was not expected to fire full 4 gun salvos anyway, but rather fire single guns slowly and methodically, The (secondary) sources are very (suspiciously) silent about wether the quad really intended as worked . Since the French publications on this ship are usually full of praise for her, this is doubly suspisious to me. Again the problems with her quad turrets were "oficially" declared solved only just before she was taken out of active service... As for the KGV quads....this is a topic i won't touch with a 6' pole. Much discussion about their performance remains. KGV did quite bad in the shooting up of Bismarck, DOY did not get her theoretical ROF by far at North Cape , but whether the latter was due to the atrocious weather or due to inherent faults still not resolved with the turrets and how it compares to the actual performance of triple and twin turrets in combat is a matter of much discussion I'll leave to those who know much more about these ships and actions. (My view on the subject is that the sample of of that generation BB in action is far too small to make any meaningful comparision, tough the KGV really did seriously underperform in the Bism. shootup)
  15. yes in Belgium we got deliveries, with much Chinese propanganda, of mouth masks (we paid for them ofc), which after testing in labo's proved to be less than useless .... so much for that
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